ENGL1121: Sentence Combining Exercises:
· Remember: Coordination and subordination are ways of showing the exact relationship of ideas within a sentence. Through coordination we show that ideas are of equal importance. When we coordinate, we use the words and, but, for, or nor, so yet. Through subordination we show that one idea is less important than another. When we subordinate, we use dependent words like when, although, since, while, because, and after. (WR:E6)
· Keep in mind that often the relationship among ideas in a sentence will be clearer when subordination rather than coordination is used.
· Use a comma at the end of a word group that starts with a dependent word (as in “Because my car is not starting on cold mornings,…”)
· Use a comma between independent word groups connected by and, but, for, or not, so, yet (as in “I already had it recharged once, so…”)
Directions: Use coordination and subordination to combine the following groups of simple sentences into one or more longer sentences. Omit repeated words. A variety of combinations is possible.
II. Other patterns that Add Variety
· -ing Word Groups
Example: The doctor examined the x-rays. He hoped for the best.
The doctor, hoping for the best, examined the x-rays.
Combine each pair of sentences below into one sentence by using an –ing word and omitting repeated words. Use a comma or commas to set off the –ing word group from the rest of the sentence.
· -ed Word Groups
Example: Mary was amused by the joke. She told it to a friend.
Mary, amused by the joke, told it to a friend.
Combined each pair of sentences below into one sentence by using an –ed word and omitting repeated words. Use a comma or commas to set off the –ed word group from the rest of the sentence.
· A complex sentence structure is used when you want to emphasize one idea over another in a sentence. Example: Because I forgot the time, I missed the final exam.
· Use logical dependent words to combine the following pairs of simple sentences into complex sentences. Place a comma after a dependent statement when it starts a sentence.
Example: I obtained a credit card. I began spending money recklessly.
When I obtained a credit card, I began spending money recklessly.
Writers Reference, p. 453: Example of common dependent words (subordinate conjunctions) Note differences between subordinate conjunctions and conjunctive adverbs.
1. The teacher announced the quiz. The class groaned.
2. Gene could not fit any more groceries into his cart. He decided to go to the checkout counter.
3. Your car is out of commission. You should take it to Otto’s Transmission.
4. I finished typing the paper. I proofread it carefully.
5. We owned four cats and a dog. No one would rent us an apartment.
Exercises: Rewrite the following sentences, using subordination rather than coordination. Include a comma when a dependent statement starts a sentence.
Example: The hair dryer was not working right, so I returned it to the store.
Because the hair dryer was not working right, I returned it to the store.
1. Ruth turned on the large window fan, but the room remained hot.
2. The plumber repaired the hot water heater, so we can take showers again.
3. I washed the sheets and towels, and I scrubbed the bathroom floor.
4. You should go to a doctor, for your chest cold may get worse.
5. The fish tank broke, and the guppies were flopping all over the carpet.
Example: -ing words: Fran spends her free time reading, listening to music, and working in the garden.
-series of descriptive words: After the camping trip I was exhausted, irritable, and hungry.
-to verbs: My hope for retirement is to be healthy, to live in a comfortable house, and to have plenty of money.
-verbs and word order: Nightly, Fred puts out the trash, checks the locks on the doors, and turns on the burglar alarm. (verb-object order)
Rewrite the unbalanced part of the following sentences so that your correction matches the other item or items in the sentence.
Example: I enjoy watering the grass and to work in the garden. ____working__
Sample Paragraphs: Exercises in “consistent person,” and “parallelism.”